We visited the largest autoplant for the production of trucks in Russia in order to show our readers visually how the final assembly of KAMAZ is made.
A little bit history, first trucks left the conveyor of KAMAZ plant in 1976. First cars were lightweighted with a load capacity of 12 tons, no more than 2 varieties were assembled daily. However, already then the task for the employees of the plant was to establish an annual production of 150 thousand vehicles.
Today auto giant assembles about 50 thousands of pieces of technics per year, 120 various models are shown at all, any of which has from 5 to 200 various complectations. For example, KAMAZ 65115 counts 205 varieties. Engineered models may differ from each other with not only exterior appearance, but also engine type. Engines are EURO-3, EURO-4, EURO-5, cabins are low, medium and high. KAMAZes with gas engines and right-hand drive KAMAZes are met. Not only petrol versions are produced. Several dozens of varieties of technics can be assembled on the conveyor at the same time today, including chassis for buses.
Even exhaust system may have several installation options. Muffler can be fixed on the right and left side, and gases can be diverted up, aside or between wheels. EURO-4 and EURO-5 units are supplemented by the exhaust cleaning system.
Plan for the production of units and stroke of the conveyor are displayed on the large electronic clocks. As a rule, one clock cycle is 220 seconds, it means that in less than 4 minutes one cabin will be replaced by another. So, a worker has to make his tasks within this time and goes to another product. Every cabin is assigned by a special code, with the help of which the list of details is defined, which woekers need to attach. The number of details are strictly counted and limited.
In this report we talk only about the process of assembly, the beginning of the production line is at the press-frame plant. From one workshop to another details are get on the suspended tapes. Under the ceiling of the facility you may see how cabins, axis and whells, balancers and axles move constantly. By the way, tyres and whells are get directly assembled, pumped and with a certain balance.
When all needed details are placed in the assembled workshop, marker beats the VIN on the frame of the future vehicle, which is assigned forever. It’s impossible to put the vehicle on record in the traffic police and get registration number signs without this identifier. The whole further assembly are made manually, sometimes impact wrenches are used.
Assembly of some cabins is made apart from the main line, at the special area. As a rule these are trucks with increased sleeping space and high roof, the main truss can’t take them because of their size. In the future, the line are planning to be remade, in order to be able to assembly KAMAZes with a load capacity of more than 40 tons.
In the end of the line fully completed cabins are set on the frame which is assembled at the nearby area in parallel. Then machines are filled with all needed liquids. At the final stage fuel is poured and the engine is started for the first time. Tocheck all the units a special stand is used, and track where the truck passes its first 15 kilometers.
In the assembly workshop 155 employees from 7 teams work at the same time. About 5 hours are spent on the assembly of one truck, during this time KAMAZ passes 680 meters of the conveyor. KAMAZ is considered to be completely self-sustained production, which produced all needed details for assembling by its own forces.